Animals January 2019 animal articles 2019
A satellite image of the commercial riparian zone. The dark tracks indicate the area available to the cattle as constrained by physical fences or topography. The dashed orange line indicates the single virtual fence line implemented for ten days. The solid yellow lines indicate the inclusion zone that the cattle had access to when the virtual fence line was in place and the blue square indicates the position of the water trough when river access was excluded. The red triangle indicates the position of the base station, and the red square indicates the position of the observers. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression and submission by group. Description of groups are given in Table 1 . The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . Trial-averaged oxygenated haemoglobin change and deoxygenated haemoglobin change , in µM, with respect to the baseline , as well as their standard deviations for each sheep in the left and right hemisphere. In every plot, the auditory stimulus is marked as the grey area, followed by the anticipation phase . The horizontal black line in every sub-figure indicates the zero values. The scores plot of the PCA model showing the directions that best explain the variance between the two treatments. OPLS–DA score plot of all metabolite features. CON = steers fed control diet , YEA = steers fed 15 g/d of live yeast product . Each data point represents one rumen fluid sample. Percentage of farmers to tick each statement in response to the following question: ‘Do you avoid mixing unfamiliar growing/finishing pigs as far as practically possible? Please tick all that apply’. Nucleotide sequences of caprine KRTAP24-1 variants A–D . The sequences exclude the PCR primer binding regions. Nucleotides in the coding region are shown in uppercase, while those outside the coding region are in lowercase. A putative Chi -like sequence and the predicted ATG start codon and TAG stop codon are boxed. Dashes signify homology with the KRTAP24-1 variant A sequence. The single-nucleotide polymorphism positions are shown above the sequences, and those that would result in amino acid changes are indicated. The numbering of nucleotides and amino acids follows the HGVS nomenclature guidelines . Variation in the caprine KAP24-1 gene detected by PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Four unique banding patterns representing four variants were observed in either homozygous or heterozygous forms. Linear discriminant analysis effect size of rumen bacterial populations of beef steer fed no or 15 g/d of live yeast product . This plot indicates the most differentially abundant taxa according to the logarithmic linear discriminant analysis score cutoff of ≥4.0. All the taxa meeting the significant threshold of 4.0 are enriched in steers fed YEA. Effects of deficient and excess maternal protein level on fetal fiber formation. Upward-pointing arrow indicates “increase” and downward-pointing arrow indicates “decrease”. Dogs’ and human infants’ visual preferences as measured by first look/fixation at dog or human images during dog bark or human speech. * p < 0.05. Nitrate intake of backgrounding beef steers fed a high-forage diet with no additives or supplemented with encapsulated nitrate , microencapsulated blend of essential oils , and combination of EN and MBEO . Error bars indicate standard deviation. For the statistical analysis, EN represents the main effect of encapsulated nitrate versus ; MBEO represents the main effects of microencapsulated blend of essential oils versus ; EN MBEO represents the interaction between main effects of EN and MBEO. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression, submission and allogrooming. Data from 426 horses are displayed. Medians for aggression and submission were 0.18/h and 0.20/h, respectively, and the corresponding averages were 0.42/h = 0.032) and 0.35/h . The median frequency of allogrooming across groups was 0.33/h and the mean was 0.43/h . The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . Proportion of time sheep spent on behaviours during the baseline phase and anticipation phase while obtaining an anticipatory food reward . Wilcoxon’s signed rank test * p ≤ 0.01; ** p ≤ 0.001. Transverse cryosections of the longissimus dorsi muscle of a 2-year-old wild pig and a 2-year-old domestic pig were stained for succinate dehydrogenase activity and the accumulation of neutral lipids within myofibers . Note that SDH-positive myofibers were more numerous in the WPs than in the DPs and that the SDH activity pattern largely overlapped with intense oil red O staining in the WPs . In the DPs, oil red O staining was too faint to analyze the intra-myofiber lipids . The difference in the staining intensity of oil red O-positive fibers between the WPs and DPs was also examined using confocal microscopy . Note that fluorescence signals indicative of IMFL droplets were more intense in the WPs than in the DPs. Scale bar = 200 µm . Plasma NO 3 − -N and NO 2 − -N concentration before morning feeding in beef steers consuming a high-forage diet with no additives or supplemented with encapsulated nitrate , microencapsulated blend essential oils , and combination of EN and MBEO . Week zero indicates the end of adaptation period . Error bars indicate standard deviation. For the statistical analysis, EN represents the main effect of encapsulated nitrate versus ; MBEO represents the main effects of microencapsulated blend of essential oils versus ; EN MBEO represents the interaction between main effects of EN and MBEO. Immunofluorescence findings of the enteroendocrine cells of the proximal duodenum: representative images. Double staining indicates the cytoplasmic localization of chromogranin A, or ghrelin and α-tran. CTR, the red color is α-tran; CTR, the green color is chromogranin A; CTR, the red color is α-tran, the green color is chromogranin A and the yellow color is colocalization. T2, the red color is α-tran; T2, the green is color ghrelin; T2, the red color is α-tran, the green is color ghrelin and yellow color is colocalization. Subscribe to receive issue release notifications and newsletters from MDPI journals Scatterplots of group medians for both individual aggression and individual submission frequencies by number of foals in a group. All groups observed in winter were provided with hay. Two groups observed in spring were also provided with hay and are marked with a light centre. . Qualitative evaluation of the neutral and/or acidic glyconjugates; the histometrical findings of the mucus gel thickness in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of CTR, T1 and T2 animals . The values are shown with different superscripts for p < 0.05 and for p < 0.01. Find support for a specific problem in the support section of our website. Histological findings of sections of the small intestine in each group: duodenum, control group ; duodenum, diet with 9% sunflower oil ; duodenum, T1 supplemented with 5 mg of verbascoside/kg feed ; jejunum, CTR; jejunum, T1; jejunum, T2, ileum, CTR; ileum, T1; and ileum, T2. The arrowheads indicate erosion of the tips of the villi. The insert is an enlargement of the arrow zone, showing epithelial cells debris and the irregular profile of the villi. Hematology values of the horses in the garlic supplemented and control horses. Experimental stimuli. S1, S2, S3 = silence; V1, V2 = vocalisation ; grey line shows the separation of the two areas of interest ; dog = AOI-D, human = AOI-H). The prevalence of PetSure insurance claims relating to common diseases in brachycephalic and non-brachycephalic breeds from 2013–2017. Scatterplots of group medians for both individual aggression and submission frequencies by stability of the groups . All groups observed in winter were provided with hay. Two groups observed in spring were also provided with hay and are marked with a light centre. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for allogrooming by group. Description of groups are given in Table 1 . Between-sample diversity indices for the weighted and unweighted uniFrac distances of rumen samples from beef steers fed no or 15 g/d of live yeast product , ** p < 0.05. Scatterplots of group medians for both individual aggression and submission frequency by proportion of males. All groups observed in winter were provided with hay. Two groups observed in spring were also provided with hay and are marked with a light centre. Photomicrographs of intestinal villi from the jejunum of broiler chicks on the day of the hatch in control, NaCl and Met-Cys groups. Control = non-injected NaCl = injected with 0.75% NaCl; Met-Cys = injected with 5.9 mg l -methionine plus 3.4 mg l -cysteine. Average representative relative humidity vs. average trailer temperature of 28 monitored trips moving broilers to processing plants. The AET values corresponding to 40 and 65 °C were overlaid. Visit our dedicated information section to learn more about MDPI. Maternal regulation of early development of neonates through fetal programming and lactation. Percentage of α-tran/chromoA or ghre-IR cells. The values are shown with different superscripts for p < 0.05 and for p < 0.01. The difference of average ACE, OTU numbers, Shannon and Simpson indices values of CON, SCFP1 and SCFP2 along the GIT. CON = No SmartCare and XPC; SCFP1 = 1 g/head/d SmartCare in milk 0.5% XPC in the starter grains; SCFP2 = 1 g/head/d SmartCare in milk 1% XPC in the starter grains . * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05 between CON and SCFP . RL28 = Rumen liquid portions at day 28 , RL56 = Rumen liquid portions at day 56 , RS56 = Rumen solid contents at day 56 , DC56= Duodenal contents at day 56 , CC = Cecal contents at day 56 , RC = Rectal contents at day 56 . The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications. Histochemical findings of sections of the small intestine staining) in each group: duodenum, CTR; duodenum, T1; duodenum, T2; jejunum, CTR; jejunum, T1; jejunum, T2, ileum, CTR; ileum, T1; and ileum, T2. The arrows indicate intestinal goblet cells; the arrowheads indicate Brunner’s glands; the blue color indicates acidic mucins; and the pink color indicates neutral mucins. The inserts are representative images at a high magnification of the mucosal layer. Percentage of participants who used each cue when judging fight severity. Weather-dependent trailer configurations employed by companies. A . Open, used for hot and mild seasons; B. Single board, used when transitioning between mild and winter seasons; C . Double board used in winter seasons; D . Plastic wrap on double board modules, used in winter days or nights with extremely cold conditions. Thermal and wind dataloggers secured on curbside of a transport module during a monitoring campaign. Diagram of instrumented transport drawers showing loggers on curb side, midline and driver side. The interior loggers consist of those on the midline, while exterior loggers consist of those on driver and curb sides. Western blot findings of α-tran and α-gust in the small intestine of CTR, T1 and T2 animals. The values are shown with different superscripts for p < 0.01. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression, submission and allogrooming by season. Data from 20 horses observed in autumn, 144 in spring, 137 in summer, and 125 in winter are displayed. Only one group was observed in autumn and their data are combined with the data from the summer groups. The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . The effect of housing on mean ± SEM percent of total time in play and the total time using the materials in enhanced housing , of group housed sows following mixing in p > 0.05).
Thermal Comfort Zones for broiler transport defined by apparent equivalent temperature by Mitchell et al. . Safe limit AET < 40 °C; danger limit Apparent equivalent temperature > 65 °C. Alert zone indicates moderate thermal stress with some degree of hyperthermia and acid-base disturbances; danger zone indicates severe thermal stress. Venn plot for OTUs. The OTUs difference among CON, SCFP1 and SCFP2 in digestive sites respectively . Singleton sequences were removed before analysis. Schematic representation of the training phase: Days −21 to −1 correspond to the habituation to be separated from the flock in starting box . Days 0 to 15 correspond to classical conditioning between the auditory stimulus and food reward and increasing latency time from the end of the auditory stimulus to the opening of the gate of 5 s and 10 s . Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression, submission and allogrooming by age class. For some groups exact age was known for all or majority of the animals but because information was limited for other groups broad age classes had to be used for mature horses. Information on 20 horses was not available. The number of individuals in each age class are: A1: n = 44, A2: n = 91, A3: n = 58, A4: n = 50, A5: n = 156, A6: n = 7. The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . Effect of Met-Cys In ovo injection on mRNA relative gene expression of chicken toll-like receptor 4 , in the heart, pectoral muscle, jejunum and liver tissues of day-old broiler chicks, . Control = non-injected NaCl = injected with 0.75% NaCl; Met-Cys = injected with 5.9 mg l -methionine plus 3.4 mg l -cysteine. Spearman rank-order correlations of all group-level variables with group median individual aggression, submission and allogrooming frequencies for the 14 non-stallion groups. The colour coding is employed to facilitate the visualization of the strength of correlations. “Number of friends” refers to the median number of friends in the group. Path diagram of standardized parameters, whereby; Ϯ p < 0.1, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001. Latent variables are represented by ovals and observed variables by rectangles. All possible relationships between observed and latent variables were estimated and only relationships whereby p < 0.10 are displayed. animal articles 2019 Regression coefficients are presented for each relationship. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression, submission and allogrooming by sex. Data from 297 female horses and 129 male horses are displayed. Median aggression rate for the stallions was 0.54 . Median submission rate was 0.20 . Median allogrooming rate was 0.20 . The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . Phylogenetic tree of high-sulphur -KAPs identified in sheep, humans, and goats. Amino acid sequences or predicted amino acid sequences were used to construct the tree. In the tree, the numbers printed at the forks indicate the bootstrap confidence values. Only those values equal to or higher than 90% are shown. The sheep sequences are indicated with “s”, the human sequences are indicated with “h”, and the caprine KAPs are indicated with a prefix “g”. The four newly identified goat KAP24-1 sequences are shown in a box, and the GenBank/EMBL accession numbers for other HS-KAPs are JN012101.1 , NM_001285774 , NM_001285767.1 , AY510115 , JX426138 , X01610 , HQ897973 , X02925 , P02443 , P02441 , P02446 , P02444 , P02445 , HQ595347 , JN377429 , KX817979 , JX112014 , KX644903 , NM_030967.2 , NM_030966.1 , NM_001257305.1 , NM_031957.1 , NM_001123387.1 , NM_033032.2 , NM_001165252.1 , NM_033184.3 , NM_031958.1 , NM_031959.2 , NM_033185.2 , NM_175858.2 , NM_181599.2 , NM_181621.3 , NM_181622.1 , NM_181600.1 , NM_181623.1 , NM_001146182.1 , NM_181624.1 , NM_001085455.2 , NM_001128598.1 , NM_203405.1 , and NM_001077711.1 . Mean visual analogue scale score for emotion, exhaustion, and severity according to video clip; whereby video clips with different letters express a significant difference in mean response. Age- and breed-dependent changes in lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle of wild pigs and domestic pigs . Shown are the mean fold changes with upper and lower limits in lipid metabolism-related genes expression for WPs and DPs compared with the expression in 1-day-old wild piglets. A fold-change value less than 1 was replaced by a negative inverse of the original fold-change value. Upper and lower limits were calculated for each fold-change value using the standard error of the mean. Effect for age, breed, and their combined effect were derived by two-way analysis of variance. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05 . a -significantly different between breeds within an age group; b1 -significantly different between 1-day-old wild piglets and 3-week-old pigs; b2 -significantly different between 1-day-old wild piglets and 2-year-old pigs. Schematic representation of the position of the fNIRS sensors . The effect of physical and auditory stimuli on mean plasma cortisol in sheep. ES = electrical stimulus treatment. The effect of physical and auditory stimuli on mean vaginal temperature in sheep. Control comparison to treatments beep, bark, restraint, and ES = electrical stimulus treatment. Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal. Effect of dietary rutin on the relative expression of ACC , FAS , CPT1 , and PPAR-α in broiler livers. Each bar carrying different letters was significantly different . Animals January 2019 animal articles 2019
Animals January 2019 animal articles 2019
Scatterplots of group median individual allogrooming frequency by group size , proportion of adults , stability and median number of friends . All groups observed in winter were provided with hay. Two groups observed in spring were also provided with hay and are marked with a light centre. “Number of friends” refers to the median number of friends in the group. Overview of the scoring by the network facilitators of the general indicators of the functioning of the Hennovation innovation networks in project month 29 . Mean visual analogue scale scores for emotion, exhaustion, and severity according to occupation; whereby occupations with different letters express a significant difference in mean response. The number of animals that received an audio cue at each separate group of interactions with the virtual fence across a 10-day period of fence activation. Separate groups of interactions by the same or different individuals occurred at least 10 min apart. The logistic learning curve for: all animals across all combined days; and all animals across all combined days but with the grazing algorithm’s two additional audio cues removed. The y -axis is the proportion of animals testing the fence line that received an electrical stimulus and the x -axis is the number of individual events or interactions with the fence line . The numerals are the number of animals that tested the fence line at each event number all ten animals interacted with the fence at least once, but only five animals interacted 60 times or more). Animal 5 was removed from these datasets as there was a functionality error in the delivery of the electrical stimulus negating accurate determination of associative learning. Across all events, approximately 25% of animals received an electrical stimulus. You are accessing a machine-readable page. In order to be human-readable, please install an RSS reader. Enteric CH 4 emissions over the experimental period for beef steers consuming a high-forage diet with no additives or supplemented with encapsulated nitrate , microencapsulated blend essential oils , and combination of EN and MBEO . Error bars indicate standard deviation. For the statistical analysis, EN represents the main effect of encapsulated nitrate versus ; MBEO represents the main effects of microencapsulated blend of essential oils versus ; EN MBEO represents the interaction between main effects of EN and MBEO. Schematic of an industry-standard drop deck poultry trailer loaded with 20, 10-door modules. Dataloggers for temperature were installed as a 5 × 3 × 3 grid on the trailer. Three horizontal planes along height are Top, Middle, and Bottom. Three longitudinal planes along width are Driver, Midline and Curb. Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication. The GPS locations of all animals in the virtual fencing trial on a commercial riparian zone property. Images display cattle movement: when no virtual fence was present; when a virtual fence was activated ; and when that virtual fence was subsequently deactivated with days of each period length indicated. Solid grey lines indicate a physical electric fence that was placed to remove a corner zone of the paddock that would have been logistically difficult for the cattle once the virtual fence was activated. Placement of point-source materials suspended from the roof in the enhanced treatment pen, which housed 12 gestating sows from the point of mixing, after insemination, until pregnancy check, at a space allowance of 2 m 2 /sow. Also, a map explaining the placement of point-source materials based on predicted animal movements within the pen. Distribution of PetSure insurance policies in force for Boxers, British Bulldogs, French Bulldogs and Pugs. Temperature, relative humidity and air velocity profiles from interior and exterior logger positions of a summer trip. The first arrow on each graph indicates the beginning of loading, the second the beginning of transport, and the third the beginning of holding period. The number of audio and electrical stimuli that each individual animal received during the 10-day period of virtual fence activation. Animal 5 was removed from this dataset as there was a functionality error in the delivery of the electrical stimulus. Boxplots showing the distribution of individual social interaction frequencies for aggression, submission and allogrooming by provision of hay. Data from 176 horses receiving hay and 250 not receiving hay is displayed. The aggression frequency from one outlier was excluded . Please let us know what you think of our products and services. Hematology values of the horses in the garlic supplemented and control horses. Group-averaged hemodynamic response and standard deviation of eight sheep for the left and right hemisphere. The plots display the group-averaged oxygenated haemoglobin change and deoxygenated haemoglobin change , in μM, with respect to the baseline of the left and right hemispheres. In every plot, the auditory stimulus is marked as the grey area, followed by the anticipation phase . The horizontal black line in every sub-figure indicates the zero values. Spearman rank-order correlations of all group-level variables with group medians of individual frequencies of aggression, submission and allogrooming for the 20 groups. The colour coding is employed to facilitate the visualization of the strength of correlations. “Number of friends” refers to the median number of friends in the group. Location of KTRTAPs on caprine chromosome 1. The putative KRTAP24-1 is clustered with eight previously identified KRTAPs . The vertical bars represent the genes, and the arrows indicate the direction of transcription of these genes. The names of the genes are written below the bars . The spacing of the genes is only approximate and is based on the Caprine Genome Assembly. The nucleotide coordinates are given relative to GCF_001704415.1 and are approximate. A pair of diagonal lines indicate that the spacing is not proportional to the length of the sequence, with the distance being shown above. Mean visual analogue scale score for emotion, exhaustion, and severity according to video clip; whereby video clips with different letters express a significant difference in mean response. Effects of deficient and excess maternal protein level on neonate fat formation. Upward-pointing arrow indicates “increase” and downward-pointing arrow indicates “decrease”. Plasma NO 3 − -N and NO 2 − -N concentration before morning feeding in beef steers consuming a high-forage diet with no additives or supplemented with encapsulated nitrate , microencapsulated blend essential oils , and combination of EN and MBEO . Week zero indicates the end of adaptation period . Error bars indicate standard deviation. For the statistical analysis, EN represents the main effect of encapsulated nitrate versus ; MBEO represents the main effects of microencapsulated blend of essential oils versus ; EN MBEO represents the interaction between main effects of EN and MBEO. Effect of dietary rutin on the relative expression of CAT , SOD and GSH-PX in broiler livers. Each bar carrying different letters was significantly different . Separation of samples based on phylogenetic information by using PCoA plot, statistical comparison of microbiota was performed with ANOSIM analysis , sample clustering into variations by locations. , Sample clustering into variations by treatments. , Treatment separation in RL28. , Treatment separation in RC56. Farmers’ median response to the question: ‘How much does the opinion of this person/group affect your decisions with regard to mixing aggression?’ . Letters indicate results of post-hoc pairwise comparisons whereby different letters indicate a significant difference between groups at p < 0.05. Schematic representation of the experimental pen . Dotted lines represent mobile fences; SB = Start box. Bucket with maize grains was placed behind a “V” shaped obstacle. Age- and breed-dependent changes in MyHC isoform expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle of wild pigs and domestic pigs . Shown are the mean fold changes with upper and lower limits in MyHCs expression for WPs and DPs compared with the expression in 1-day-old wild piglets. A fold-change value less than 1 was replaced by a negative inverse of the original fold-change value. Upper and lower limits were calculated for each fold-change value using the standard error of the mean. Effect for age, breed, and their combined effect were derived by two-way analysis of variance. Differences were considered significant at p < 0.05 . a -significantly different between breeds within an age group; b1 -significantly different between 1-day-old wild piglets and 3-week-old pigs; b2 -significantly different between 1-day-old wild piglets and 2-year-old pigs. Diurnal pattern of CH 4 emissions and animal visits to the GreenFeed emission monitoring system over 24-h period for backgrounding beef steers fed a high-forage diet with no additives , or supplemented with encapsulated nitrate , microencapsulated blend of essential oils , and combination of EN and MBEO . The arrows indicate time of feeding at 0900 h and 1600 h, and 0000 h indicates midnight. There were no significant differences among treatments for the animal visits at individual time points throughout the hours of the day. For CH 4 emissions, error bars indicate standard deviation and ns = p > 0.05; * p ≤ 0.05; ** p ≤ 0.01; *** p ≤ 0.001. For the statistical analysis, EN represents the main effect of encapsulated nitrate versus ; MBEO represents the main effects of microencapsulated blend of essential oils versus ; EN MBEO represents the interaction between main effects of EN and MBEO. Results of looking duration in dogs and infants . * p < 0.05. $ p = 0.09. CI—confidence interval. Proportion of innovation networks scored as achieving high, middle and low engagement for the criteria associated with each of the six facilitation process steps at the completion of the project. The number of criteria ranged from 2 to 4 for each step . Top eight bacteria percentage in family level of total OTUs number of CON, SCFP1 and SCFP2 through GITs. CON = No SmartCare and XPC; SCFP1 = 1 g/head/d SmartCare in milk 0.5% XPC in the starter grains; SCFP2 = 1 g/head/d SmartCare in milk 1% XPC in the starter grains . * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05 between CON and SCFP . RL28 = Rumen liquid portions at day 28 , RL56 = Rumen liquid portions at day 56 , RS56 = Rumen solid contents at day 56 , DC56 = Duodenal contents at day 56 , CC = Cecal contents at day 56 , RC = Rectal contents at day 56 . All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited. Effect of Met-Cys In ovo injection on mRNA relative gene expression of insulin-like growth factor in the heart, pectoral muscle, jejunum and liver tissues of day-old broiler chicks, . animal articles pdf